מבחן TOEFL אונליין

חושבים שאתם מוכנים למבחן TOEFL? התחילו את המבדק ותנסו בעצמכם

מבחן TOEFL מהווה, כמעט בכל המוסדות בעולם, בחינת קבלה ללימודים גבוהים בבתי ספר אשר בהם הלימודים מתקיימים בשפה האנגלית. TOEFL הינו מבחן סף קבלה, מרבית המוסדות האקדמיים בחו"ל מגדירים מהו ציון המינימום הנדרש לצורך הקבלה ללימודים. מטרת הבחינה הינה להעריך את רמת השליטה בכל מרכיבי השפה: דיבור, כתיבה, הבנת הנשמע והבנת הנקרא. גרסת המבחן, שקיימת היום, היא TOEFL iBT הממוחשב. המבחן הוא ברמה מאתגרת וגבוהה.

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Göbekli Tepe

  1. Göbekli Tepe, an archaeological site in modern-day Turkey, may have been the first temple in the world. Somewhat like the much more famous Stonehenge, in England, Göbkeli Tepe features a series of gigantic stone pillars arrayed in circles, with a pair of T-shaped stones standing up to 16 feet (nearly 5 meters) tall in the center. Surrounding the central stones are somewhat smaller stones, all leaning slightly inward. The stones are truly massive – the largest weigh between seven and ten tons – and many of them bear elaborate carvings of dangerous wild animals such as lions, foxes, and scorpions.
  2. In one key way, however, Göbekli Tepe is very different from Stonehenge: Göbekli Tepe was built at least 7,000 years before Stonehenge. In fact, Göbekli Tepe is so old that it pre-dates the earliest major agricultural society in the area, Sumer, by at least 5,000 years. This directly contradicts the long-standing assumption about how human societies transitioned from hunting and gathering to agriculture. Based on their studies of dozens of other ancient civilizations, archaeologists have believed for generations that the adoption of agriculture was a necessary first step toward forming large, complex societies capable of erecting monumental architecture. Why, then, does the site’s lead archaeologist believe that a hunter-gather society built Göbekli Tepe?
  3. The first clues uncovered were bones, more than 100,000 of which have been uncovered since major work began at Göbekli Tepe in 1995. Joris Peters, an archaeo-zoologist from the Ludwig Maximilian University in Munich, has identified the bones as coming from wild game animals including gazelle, boar, sheep, and red deer. Furthermore, many of the bones bear cut marks and splintered edges, which shows that the animals were butchered. Another key clue was contributed by paleo-ecologists, who recreate and model ancient natural environments. More than 10,000 years ago, the area surrounding Göbekli Tepe would have been a paradise, filled with herds of game animals, gently flowing rivers that attracted migrating birds, fruit and nut trees, and even fields of wild barley and wheat. Finally, excavators have found stone tools that are identical to those found at nearby hunter gatherer sites.
  4. All of these clues point to the same conclusion, according to Klaus Schmidt, who has led the digs at Göbekli Tepe for more than 20 years: Göbekli Tepe was a place of worship, a “cathedral on a hill” where pre-agricultural peoples gathered to worship their gods and perform rituals. Schmidt speculates that they may have selected the site because it is a stonemason’s dream. Lacking metal tools, the builders of Göbekli Tepe would have relied upon tools made of a hard stone like obsidian to laboriously cut pillars out of the (relatively soft) limestone outcrops that are common in the area. They would have then needed to transport them only a few hundred yards to the top of the gently sloping hill (Göbekli Tepe means “potbelly hill” in modern Turkish).
  5. According to Schmidt, all of the evidence he and his team has collected indicates that monumental architecture at Göbekli Tepe preceded agriculture. Indeed, Schmidt argues that the cultural and societal changes necessary to carve, transport, and erect such massive stones – hundreds of workers would have needed to be housed and fed for weeks or months at a time – pushed hunter-gatherer cultures towards subsequent innovations that culminated in the first truly settled agricultural societies. This view is supported by the discoveries by other researchers of signs of animal and plant domestication at pre-historic villages in the area that date to 500-1,000 years after the construction of Göbekli Tepe.
  6. Schmidt’s claims are not yet widely accepted, in part because Göbekli Tepe is but one site out of hundreds of pre-historic sites in the general area. What are the odds, ask Schmidt’s critics, that he stumbled across the one place where agriculture first developed? Also, the switch from hunting and gathering to agriculture likely took hundreds or even thousands of years and may have occurred many times in many different ways in various places. Finally, that monumental architecture slightly preceded settled agriculture in one particular place does not show that it did so everywhere. However, Schmidt is undeterred by his critics and optimistic that exciting discoveries remain to be found. He estimates that in more than 20 years, he and his teams have excavated only 5% of Göbekli Tepe. Archaeologists could dig there for another 50 years and barely scratch the surface.